Adderall is a central nervous systemstimulant, used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy in children aged 6 and older, adolescents and adults.
ADHD is a psychological state, accompanied by constant inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity.
This syndrome begins to develop in childhood and can persist into adulthood.
It is believed that Adderall stimulant helps:
- reduce the severity of symptoms, associated with ADHD;
- improve mental performance;
- improve concentration.
Adderall is a blend of Amphetamine and Dextroamphetaminesalts. These active ingredients increase the activity of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
Studies have shown that Adderall duplicates some chemical reactions ofendogenous neurotransmitters, thus increasingthe activity of the central nervous system and boosting energy.
Such effect of Adderall allows prescribing it for the narcolepsy treatment, which is characterized by bouts of irresistible daytime sleepiness and sudden sleepattacks.
The global pharmaceutical marketoffers Adderall in two formulas:
- 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, and 30 mg tablets with immediate release of active ingredients;
- 5, 10, 15, 20,25, and 30 mg capsules with sustained release of active ingredients;
The sustained release formula is available under the trademark Adderall XR and is usually taken once a day.
Adderall XR is most often prescribed to teenagers aged 12 and more, and adults.
Formula with the immediate release of active ingredients can be prescribedto children aged 3 to 6, since it has the most favorable therapeutic index.
The daily dose of Adderall is selectedindividually. Lowest effective dose of the psychostimulantis recommended for the beginning of the treatment for ADHD and narcolepsy.
Note that the use of Adderall oral tablets or capsules in the evening may cause insomnia. Therefore, therapeutic doses of this stimulant should be takenonly in the daytime, irrespective of meals.
Pediatric Adderall dose for the treatment of ADHD in children aged three to six years is 5 mg per day, divided into two doses (two tablets of Adderall 2.5 mg).
The first dose should be given to the child on awakening; the second Adderalldose should be taken 4-5 hours later. If necessary, the daily dose of stimulant for infants can be increasedby 2.5 mg every week until the optimal response.
- The daily dose of Adderall for children aged 6 to 12, as well as the teens, is 10mg.
- The adult dose of Adderall is 20 mg per day.
- The maximum daily dose of Adderall for children and adolescents should not exceed 20-30mg, for adults – 40 mg.
The daily dose of Adderall for the narcolepsytreatmentis selected depending on individual patient response and ranges from 5 mg to 60 mg.
- When using immediate-release Adderalltablets, the onset of the therapeutic effect is observed an average of for 40 minutes after the ingestion and lasts about 4-5 hours.
- Sustained release formis characterized by a 10-12-hour duration of action. At the same time, the therapeutic effect onsets on average one and a half hours after the ingestion.
As a rule, Adderall is well tolerated and highly effective in treating ADHD symptoms. However, along with the undoubted advantages, this psychostimulant does have some drawbacks.
Since the drug contains the psychoactive substance Amphetamine, prolonged use of Adderall (over 15 months) may lead to tolerance and withdrawal syndrome.
Note that tolerance to Adderall develops very quickly,when this stimulant is usedat doses exceeding the recommended ones. In this regard, it is strongly recommended to adhere to the established dosing regimen.
Other disadvantages of Adderall include its ability to cause side effects. The most common ones are loss of appetite, palpitations, emotional instability, and insomnia.
Despite the considerable list of potential side effects, most patients never have them.
At present, Adderall is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy in children and adults.
Adderall in therapeutic doses helps reduce the intensity of the ADHD symptoms, improves concentration and enhances the cognitive functions of the brain.